A tough year financially for many Australians has been summed up by Macquarie Dictionary's word of the 2023 - "cozzie livs".
The word of the year committee said "cozzie livs" had resonated with Australians, despite having roots in the UK, "with its -ie suffix and its clipped formation, reminiscent of menty b and locky d".
"And what could be a more Australian approach to a major social and economic problem than to treat it with a bit of humour and informality," the committee said.
Honourable mentions were given to "blue-sky flood" - when a low-lying area is inundated by floodwater from higher ground, and "algospeak".
"The floods so many have endured in recent times make blue-sky flood a topical expression, and it resonates more broadly," the committee said.
"The idea that there is a deluge coming, even though the sun is shining, is almost like the time bomb we're all sitting on with climate change."
"Algospeak" refers to a coded language used online to avoid site moderation rules by replacing banned words with something innocuous such as "seggs" for sex and "unalive" for dead or kill.
And the people's choice award went to "generative AI", showing how the fast-moving technology dominated discussion in 2023.
"Unlike many other previous People's Choice winners, generative AI isn't a clever or humorous construction, but it has touched a nerve," the committee said.
Meanwhile US-based dictionary Merriam-Webster has declared "authentic" its word of the year, Cambridge dictionary chose "hallucinate" and the Collins dictionary picked "AI".
It comes after the Australian National Dictionary Centre, based at the Australian National University, dubbed 'Matilda' the word of 2023, inspired by the skyrocketing popularity of the nation's women's soccer team.
Macquarie Dictionary's word of the year 2023 shortlist
angry water - carbonated water.
Bazball - an aggressive style of play, especially of the batting side.
bopo - body positivity.
boreout - a state of demotivation or dissatisfaction in one's job, brought about by a lack of interesting work.
bridesmaid suburb - any of various suburbs which surround the most expensive or sought-after suburb in a particular area.
crash blossom - a phrase or sentence, especially in a news headline, that is ambiguous due to its wording or punctuation.
doof stick - a long pole topped by a placard, decoration, etc., used as a location marker for a group of friends at a dance or music festival.
debt-trap diplomacy - a strategy, employed by a country or other institution, of lending to a foreign nation in order to increase political leverage, as by imposing conditions which the borrower is unable to fulfil, thereby forcing them to accept political or economic concessions in lieu of repayment.
doorway effect - a psychological phenomenon in which a person's short-term memory is disrupted when they cross some kind of boundary, such as moving from one room to another.
generative AI - an artificial-intelligence application which is capable of producing new content, such as text, images, videos, etc., through use of machine learning.
gravy day - 21 December. In reference to this date in the lyrics of How to Make Gravy (1996) by Australian singer Paul Kelly.
hostile architecture - a style of architecture for shared public spaces which utilises design features that discourage unwanted behaviour, such as anti-homeless spikes or benches with armrests, to prevent people, especially the homeless, from lying down and sleeping.
rizz - noun 1. charisma. -verb (t) 2. to attract (a partner), especially for a sexual encounter.
scrotox - a botox preparation for the scrotum, especially as used for cosmetic purposes to make the skin appear less wrinkled, and to reduce sweating.
shadow work - the practice of identifying and accepting one's repressed or unacknowledged behaviours or traits, thought to improve self-awareness and self-realisation.
skimpflation - a reduction in the quality or availability of a product or service despite the cost to the customer remaining the same, as by reducing the number of service staff or the frequency of a service, or by using lower-quality ingredients in a product.
YIMBY - a person who is actively supportive of developments such as high- and medium-density housing, prisons, hospitals, airports, military installations, disabled housing, etc., being located in the vicinity of their home. [Y(es) i(n) m(y) b(ack)y(ard); modelled on NIMBY]